The almost uniformly flat aspect of the Murgia uplands and the area around Ruvo, with its fields, vineyards and olive groves, is punctuated by the presence of sinkholes, karstic valleys, as well as caves and grottoes, the most well-known of which is the Grave della Ferratella – the deepest pothole in the region. Karsism plays a fundamental role in the geological physiognomy of the Alta Murgia landscape. The phenomenon is caused by the erosive effects of rainwater on the limestone bedrock. The “lame” or channels in the rock, take the surface water towards lower ground and eventually onwards to the sea. The “Lama Reale”, near Ruvo is one of the most pronounced of these channels. The local road network and the disposition of cultivatable areas are defined by dry stone walls, constructed without mortar and which stand as testament to traditional construction techniques.